Academic Publications

  • Case Catalog Library Photo

    Case Catalog Library

    Vincent L. Lacorte Case Series

    The center develops case studies that help students examine how digital strategies are changing the way firms compete. Our cases illustrate how these strategies can enable the supply chain, marketing, manufacturing, services, innovation and product development. As the cases in the catalog demonstrate, digital strategies are implemented in a veriety of industries including communications, manufacturing, retail, biotechnology and humanitarian relief. For order reprint information, please email us or call 603.646.0187. More ›

    Case Catalog (12K)

    Topics: Information Technology, Innovation, Manufacturing, Marketing, Product Development, Services, Supply Chain


  • Institutionalizing HIPAA Compliance Organizations and Competing Logics in U.S. Health Care Photo

    Institutionalizing HIPAA Compliance Organizations and Competing Logics in U.S. Health Care

    Ajit Appari, Denise L. Anthony Ph.D , M. Eric Johnson
    Journal of Health and Social Behavior, March 2014

    Health care in the United States is highly regulated, yet compliance with regulations is variable. For example, compliance with two rules for securing electronic health information in the 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act took longer than expected and was highly uneven across U.S. hospitals. We analyzed 3,321 medium and large hospitals using data from the 2003 Health Information and Management Systems Society Analytics Database. We find that organizational strategies and institutional environments influence hospital compliance, and further that institutional logics moderate the effect of some strategies, indicating the interplay of regulation, institutions, and organizations that contribute to the extensive variation that characterizes the U.S. health care system. More ›

    Topics: Electronic Health Record, Healthcare IT & Ops


  • The New Enterprise Mobility: Seizing the Opportunities and Challenges in Corporate Mobile IT Photo

    The New Enterprise Mobility: Seizing the Opportunities and Challenges in Corporate Mobile IT

    Thomas Sammer, Hans Brechbühl, Andrea Back
    AMCIS, August 2013

    A new generation of mobile IT is driving new thinking and innovation in most areas of organizations and is challenging corporate IT. From a “computing” perspective, this second-generation enterprise mobility (SGEM), such as smartphones and media tablets, enables pervasiveness, much more intuitive computing, and contextual intelligence. This changes what can be done with IT in enterprises and creates new challenges for IT departments. Based on three group interviews and twelve individual interviews including data from 31 corporations, we explore how corporations are responding to SGEM. Based on this data, we derive three opportunities and four challenges. The synthesis of the results reveals that SGEM has changed employee expectations for professional IT and led to fundamental issues concerning the role and objectives of corporate IT departments.  More ›

    Topics: Information Security, Information Technology, Mobile


  • Security Practices and Regulatory Compliance in the Healthcare Industry Photo

    Security Practices and Regulatory Compliance in the Healthcare Industry

    Juhee Kwon, M. Eric Johnson
    Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, October 2012

    Objective: Securing protected health information is a critical responsibility of every healthcare organization. We explore information security practices and identify practice patterns that are associated with improved regulatory compliance. Design: We employed Ward's cluster analysis using minimum variance based on the adoption of security practices. Variance between organizations was measured using dichotomous data indicating the presence or absence of each security practice. Using t tests, we identified the relationships between the clusters of security practices and their regulatory compliance. Measurement: We utilized the results from the Kroll/Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society telephone-based survey of 250 US healthcare organizations including adoption status of security practices, breach incidents, and perceived compliance levels on Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Red Flags rules, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and state laws governing patient information security. Results: Our analysis identified three clusters (which we call leaders, followers, and laggers) based on the variance of security practice patterns. The clusters have significant differences among non-technical practices rather than technical practices, and the highest level of compliance was associated with hospitals that employed a balanced approach between technical and non-technical practices (or between one-off and cultural practices). Conclusions: Hospitals in the highest level of compliance were significantly managing third parties’ breaches and training. Audit practices were important to those who scored in the middle of the pack on compliance. Our results provide security practice benchmarks for healthcare administrators and can help policy makers in developing strategic and practical guidelines for practice adoption. More ›

    Topics: Compliance, Healthcare IT & Ops, Information Security


  • Meaningful Use of Electronic Health Record Systems and Process Quality of Care Photo

    Meaningful Use of Electronic Health Record Systems and Process Quality of Care

    Ajit Appari, M. Eric Johnson, Denise L. Anthony Ph.D
    Health Services Research Journal, July 2012

    Evidence from a Panel Data Analysis of U.S. Acute-Care Hospitals. Objective: To estimate the incremental effects of transitions in electronic health record (EHR) system capabilities on hospital process quality. Data Source: Hospital Compare (process quality), Health Information and Management Systems Society Analytics (EHR use), and Inpatient Prospective Payment System (hospital characteristics) for 2006–2010. Conclusions: Hospitals transitioning to EHR systems capable of meeting 2011 meaningful use objectives improved process quality, and lower quality hospitals experienced even higher gains. However, hospitals that transitioned to more advanced systems saw quality declines. More ›

    Topics: Electronic Health Record


  • The Economics of Financial and Medical Identity Theft Photo

    The Economics of Financial and Medical Identity Theft

    M. Eric Johnson
    Springer, March 2012

    Center director Eric Johnson and Indiana University computer scientist Jean Camp reveal the business models of identity thieves and examine potential solutions for organizations and consumers. Financial identity theft is well understood with clear underlying motives. Medical identity theft is new and presents a growing problem. The solutions to both problems however, are less clear. The Economics of Financial and Medical Identity Theft discusses how the digital networked environment is critically different from the world of paper, eyeballs and pens. The Economics of Financial and Medical Identity Theft also presents an overview of the current technology for identity management. The book closes with a series of vignettes in the last chapter, looking at the risks we may see in the future and how these risks can be mitigated or avoided. More ›

    Topics: Healthcare IT & Ops, Identity Theft


  • Medication Administration Quality and Health Information Technology: National Study of US Hospitals Photo

    Medication Administration Quality and Health Information Technology: National Study of US Hospitals

    Ajit Appari, Denise Anthony, M. Eric Johnson, Emily Carian
    Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association

    A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of data from three sources: CPOE/eMAR usage from HIMSS Analytics (2010), medication quality scores from CMS Hospital Compare (2010), and hospital characteristics from CMS Acute Inpatient Prospective Payment System (2009). The analysis focused on 11 quality indicators (January–December 2009) at 2603 medium-to-large (≥100 beds), non-federal acute-care hospitals measuring proportion of eligible patients given (or prescribed) recommended medications for conditions, including acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia, and surgical care improvement.  More ›

    Topics: Healthcare IT & Ops


  • A Morphology of the Organisation of Data Governance Photo

    A Morphology of the Organisation of Data Governance

    Boris Otto
    Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems

    ABSTRACT: Both information systems (IS) researchers and practitioners consider data governance as a promising approach for companies to improve and maintain the quality of corporate data, which is seen as critical for being able to meet strategic business requirements, such as compliance or integrated customer management. Both sides agree that data governance primarily is a matter of organisation. However, hardly any scientific results have been produced so far indicating what actually has to be organised by data governance, and what data governance may look like. The paper aims at closing this gap by developing a morphology of data governance organisation on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the state of the art both in science and in practice. Epistemologically, the morphology represents an analytic theory, as it serves for structuring the research topic of data governance, which is still quite unexplored. Six mini case studies are used to evaluate the morphology by means of empirical data. Providing a foundation for further research, the morphology contributes to the advancement of the scientific body of knowledge. At the same time, it is beneficial to practitioners, as companies may use it as a guideline when organising data governance.

    Topics: Data, Governance, Organization


  • Organizing Data Governance: Findings from the Telecommunications Industry Photo

    Organizing Data Governance: Findings from the Telecommunications Industry

    Boris Otto
    Communications of the Association for Information Systems Vol. 29 No 1 Article 3

    ABSTRACT: Many companies see Data Governance as a promising approach to ensuring data quality and maintaining its value as a company asset. While the practitioners’ community has been vigorously discussing the topic for quite sometime, Data Governance as a field of scientific study is still in its infancy. This article reports on the findings of a casestudy on the organization of Data Governance in two large telecommunications companies, namely BT and Deutsche Telekom. The article proposes that large, service-providing companies in general have a number of options when designing Data Governance and that the individual organizational design is context-contingent. Despite their many similarities, BT and Deutsche Telekom differ with regard to their Data Governance organization. BT has followed a more project-driven, bottom-up philosophy; Deutsche Telekom, on the other hand, favors a rather constitutive, top-down approach. The article also proposes a research agenda for further studies in the field of Data Governance organization. More ›

    Topics: Data, Governance, Telecommunications


  • Information and Data Quality in Business Networking

    Boris Otto, Yang Lee, Ismael Caballero
    Electron Markets (2011) 21:83–97

    Information and data quality in business networking: a key concept for enterprises in its early stages of development. Abstract: Information and data of high quality are critical for successful business performance in general and Business Networking in particular. As the trend toward sharing information between business partners and value networks is still increasing, the position paper aims at providing a comprehensive perspective on the state of research with regard to information and data quality in Business Networking. The paper shows that much has been achieved, but that fundamental aspects still remain unaddressed. Based on the results of a literature review, the paper identifies consequential areas of research and makes six propositions for future research. In doing so, the position paper aims at offering novel perspectives and at introducing new areas of research in a field of particularly high relevance in the networked businessand electronic markets domain.

    Position Paper (256K)

    Topics: Data


  • Usability Failures and Healthcare Data Hemorrhages Photo

    Usability Failures and Healthcare Data Hemorrhages

    M. Eric Johnson, Nicholas D. Willey
    IEEE Security & Privacy

    Data leaks are often the result of usability failures. In healthcare, usability failures risk both patients' health and their identity. In this article, the authors analyze samples of medical-related files collected from peer-to-peer file-sharing networks. These leaked files contained significant protected health information and demonstrate the risk to patients and institutions. Through interviews and field research, they document how usability failures lead to such hemorrhages. More ›

    Usability Failures and Healthcare Data Hemorrhages (1.1M)

    Topics: Data, Healthcare IT & Ops


  • Information Security Risk and Privacy in Healthcare: Current State of Research Photo

    Information Security Risk and Privacy in Healthcare: Current State of Research

    M. Eric Johnson, Ajit Appari
    International Journal of Internet and Enterprise Management, 6(4), pp. 279-314, 2010

    Information security and privacy in the healthcare sector is an issue of growing importance. The adoption of digital patient records, increased regulation, provider consolidation and the increasing need for information exchange between patients, providers and payers, all point towards the need for better information security. We critically survey the literature on information security and privacy in healthcare, published in information systems journals as well as many other related disciplines including health informatics, public health, law, medicine, the trade press and industry reports. In this paper, we provide a holistic view of the recent research and suggest new areas of interest to the information systems community.

    Paper in PDF Format (1.2K)

    Topics: Healthcare IT & Ops, Information Security, Privacy


  • Financial Pricing of Software Development Risk Factors Photo

    Financial Pricing of Software Development Risk Factors

    Ajit Appari, Michel Benaroch
    IEEE Software (vol. 27 no. 5) pp. 65-73

    The ability to price (monetize) software development risks can benefit various aspects of software development. Cost estimators predict project cost by adjusting a project's nominal cost on the basis of risk factors' (cost drivers') expected values, but the predicted cost is often inaccurate because risk factors' actual values normally deviate from expectations. Because variability is a widely used risk measure in finance, this risk-pricing method relates risk factor variability to project cost variability. The method estimates two parameters for each risk factor: extra cost incurred per unit exposure and project sensitivity. Several areas can benefit from the benchmark risk-pricing parameters obtained when applying this method with a cost estimator such as Cocomo. More ›

    Topics: Risk, Software


  • Monetary Pricing of Software Development Risks: A Method and Empirical Illustration Photo

    Monetary Pricing of Software Development Risks: A Method and Empirical Illustration

    Ajit Appari, Michel Benaroch
    Journal of Systems and Software

    The ability to price (monetize) software development risks can benefit various aspects of software development decision-making. This paper presents a risk pricing method that estimates two parameters for every individual risk factor: extra cost incurred per unit exposure, and project sensitivity, to that factor. Since variability is a widely used measure of risk in finance and decision sciences, the method derives risk pricing parameters by relating variability in risk factors to variability in project cost. This approach rests on the fact that a parametric cost estimator predicts project cost by adjusting the “nominal” cost of a project based on the expected values of risk factors (cost drivers), but the actual project cost often deviates from prediction because the actual values of risk factors normally deviate from expectations. In addition, to illustrate the viability of the method, the paper applies the method empirically with COCOMO data, to approximate risk pricing parameters for four risk factors (Personnel Capability, Process Maturity, Technology Platform, and Application Task). Importantly, though, the method could work equally well with data recorded based on other parametric cost estimators. The paper also discusses several areas that can benefit from benchmark risk pricing parameters of the kind we obtain. Received 13 October 2009; revised 14 April 2010; accepted 3 June 2010. Available online 11 June 2010.  More ›

    Topics: Risk, Software


  • Protecting Critical Information Infrastructure: Developing Cybersecurity Policy Photo

    Protecting Critical Information Infrastructure: Developing Cybersecurity Policy

    Hans Brechbühl, Robert Bruce, Scott Dynes, M. Eric Johnson
    Information Technology for Development, Volume 16 No 1, Commonwealth, Spring 2010

    This article discusses the elements of successful information security practices and policies at developing countries, based on field studies of information security practices and policies at US firms as well as on literature research. These elements include shared behaviors, persuasive relationships, and trust: we see these as resulting from increased dialog and necessity, not necessarily from any formal governing structure. This article presents a network model of the interactions required for effective cybersecurity and provide guidance to ICT Ministers in developing countries about the multidimensional aspects of cybersecurity policy concerns. More ›

    Topics: Data, Information Security


  • Managing Risk of IT Disruptions in Healthcare Settings: A Continuity of Operations Planning Process Photo

    Managing Risk of IT Disruptions in Healthcare Settings: A Continuity of Operations Planning Process

    Scott Dynes, Stephen Pixley, Douglas Madory
    Proceedings of the 2009 AMCIS

    Over the last few decades, a rapid adoption of information technologies in nearly every facet of patient care in healthcare settings has taken place; the recent U.S. government emphasis on the utilization of IT in healthcare will only serve to increase the dependency of care providers on IT. As IT becomes increasingly central to clinical and business practice, health care institutions must become increasingly vigilant about preparations for continuity of operations when normal IT functions are disrupted. In this paper we describe the development and use of a process designed to manage the risk to patient safety and clinical operations due to IT and communications failures; this process includes identifying critical applications and formulating plans for organizational and departmental responses in cases of IT and communication failures. Lessons learned will be discussed in the context of enabling other healthcare organizations to use this process.

    in PDF Format (648K)

    Topics: Information Technology, Risk


  • Cyber Security: Are Economic Incentives Adequate? Photo

    Cyber Security: Are Economic Incentives Adequate?

    Scott Dynes, Eric Goetz, Michael Freeman
    Critical Infrastructure Protection, Springer, editors Eric Goetz and Sujeet Shenoi, 2008

    Protecting national critical infrastructure assets from cyber incidents is an important challenge. This article examines the threats faced by for-profit critical infrastructure entities, the incentives and drivers that influence investment in cyber security measures, and how policy initiatives might influence cyber preparedness in critical infrastructure entities. 

    Overview in PDF Format (1319K)

    Topics: Information Security, Information Technology


  • Information Risk of Inadvertent Disclosure: An Analysis of File-Sharing Risk in the Financial Supply

    M. Eric Johnson
    Journal of Management Information Systems, 2008

    Firms face many different types of information security risk. Inadvertent disclosure of sensitive business information represents one of the largest classes of recent security breaches. We examine a specific instance of this problem—inadvertent disclosures through peer-to-peer file-sharing networks. We characterize the extent of the security risk for a group of large financial institutions using a direct analysis of leaked documents. We also characterize the threat of loss by examining search patterns in peer-to-peer networks. Our analysis demonstrates both a substantial threat and vulnerability for large financial firms. 

    Overview in PDF Format (1319K)

    Topics: Inadvertent Data Disclosure, Risk, Supply Chain


  • Ubiquitous Communication: Tracking Technologies within the Supply Chain

    M. Eric Johnson
    Logistics Engineering Handbook, CRC Press, Editor G. D. Taylor, 2008

    The article examines tracking technologies in the context of a case study of an integration project at a major retailer, focusing on the business case for investment. The case looks at how technologies like Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Global Positioning System (GPS) can be used to improve supply chain performance and aid in reducing supply chain shrinkage. 

    In PDF Format (323K)
    LEH.pdf (900K)
    Ubiquitous Communication (944k)

    Topics: Supply Chain, Technology


  • The Evolution of the Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Industry and the Security Risks for Users

    M. Eric Johnson, Dan McGuire,
    Proceedings of the 41st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2008

    This paper examines the peer-to-peer file sharing phenomena, including an overview of the industry, its business models, and evolution. The authors describe the information security risks users’ face including personal identification disclosure and leakage of proprietary business information.

    Overview in PDF Format (353K)

    Topics: Data, Information Security, Information Technology, Risk


  • Embedding Information Security into the Organization

    M. Eric Johnson, Eric Goetz
    Security & Privacy Magazine, IEEE, Vol. 5, Issue 3, May-June 2007

    Risk and business have always been inseparable, but new information security risks pose unknown challenges. How should firms organize and manage to improve enterprise security? In this article, the authors address how chief information security officers (CISOs) are working to build secure organizations. 

    in PDF Format (517K)

    Topics: Information Security, Organization


  • Economic Costs of Firm-Level Information Infrastructure Failures

    M. Eric Johnson, Scott Dynes
    International Journal of Logistics Management. 2007.

    Risk and business have always been inseparable, but new information security risks pose unknown challenges. How should firms organize and manage to improve enterprise security? In this article, the authors address how chief information security officers (CISOs) are working to build secure organizations. 

    Topics: Information Security, Risk


  • Supply Chain Management: Technology, Globalization, and Policy at a Crossroads

    M. Eric Johnson
    Interfaces, Volume 36, 2006

    The forces of globalization and technology are changing supply chains. In many cases, the supply chains are literally disintegrating. Product designers, marketers, and manufacturers that were previously housed in a single facility are now spread over several continents in organizations with different cultures, languages, and business objectives. For example, not long ago, apparel firms, such as Levi Strauss and Company, did it all—operating their own US production plants along with their core design and marketing activities. In the past few years, that has changed. 

    Paper in PDF Format (46K)

    Topics: Manufacturing, Marketing, Product Development, Risk, Supply Chain


  • Costs to the U.S. Economy of Information Infrastructure Failures

    Scott Dynes

    M. Eric Johnson, Eva Andrijcic
    Proceedings of the Fifth WEIS, 2006

    The increasing reliance of the U.S. economy on the information infrastructure has raised questions regarding the security and robustness of the critical information infrastructure at all levels of the economy, ranging from individuals in small firms facing very practical concerns to national figures facing equally pressing policy issues. Until recently, these individuals have had to rely mainly on speculation for guidance as empirical studies of the economic risks faced by individual firms and larger economic entities were unavailable. This lack of data concerning these issues was the original impetus for the studies presented in this paper.

    Article in PDF Format (92K)

    Topics: Data, Information Security


  • Dual Sourcing Strategies

    M. Eric Johnson
    Supply Chain Excellence in Emerging Economies, Springer-Verlag, Editors Hau L. Lee and Chung-Yee Lee, 2006

    This article examines a case study of Mattel and its decision process to add production capacity to a network of both outsourced and Mattel-operated facilities. Set during the Asian financial crisis, the case illustrates: 1) How toy makers manage demand and supply uncertainty; 2) Mattel's outsourcing strategy in Asia; 3) How Mattel integrates its marketing and supply chain strategy. 

    in PDF Format (174K)

    Topics: Asia, Emerging Markets, Risk, Supply Chain


  • Managing Information Risk and the Economics of Security Photo

    Managing Information Risk and the Economics of Security

    M. Eric Johnson
    Springer, December 2005

    Information has become a source of growing risk as more firms maintain information online. Managing Information Risk and the Economics of Security presents the latest research on economics driving both the risks and the solutions. Covering the implications of policy within firms and across countries, this volume provides managers and policy makers with new thinking on how to manage risk. Designed for managers, policy makers, and researchers focusing on economics of information security as well as advanced-level students in computer science, business management and economics.  More ›

    Overview in PDF Format (1,319K)

    Topics: Economy, Globalization, Information Security, Risk


  • Building a Distribution System in Eastern Europe

    M. Eric Johnson
    Supply Chain Excellence in Emerging Economies, Springer-Verlag, editors Hau L. Lee and Chung-Yee Lee, 2005

    Building distributions systems in emerging markets like those of Eastern Europe offer many opportunities and challenges. In an environment of changing customer expectations and evolving distribution infrastructure, firms can develop new business models that generate rapid growth. In this paper, we examine the organic growth of an office supply firm in Eastern Europe.

    Paper in PDF Format (297)

    Topics: Europe, Human Resources, Technology


  • Information Security in the Extended Enterprise

    Scott Dynes

    M. Eric Johnson, Hans Brechbühl
    Field Study, 2005

    What are the main drivers of private-section investment in information security? How exposed are firms to cyber risks arising from their reliance on the information infrastructure? Initial results are presented from a field study of a manufacturing company and four of its suppliers of different sizes. We find that many managers believe: that information security is less a competitive advantage than a qualifier for doing business; that firms’ internal networks are not at additional risk as a result of using the information infrastructure to integrate their supply chains; and that their supply chains are robust to internet outages of up to a week in duration. We discuss their security perceptions and actions in the context of a cost model.

    Paper in PDF Format (253K)

    Topics: Information Security, Manufacturing, Risk


  • A Field Study of Extended Enterprise Security

    Scott Dynes

    M. Eric Johnson
    Proceedings of the Third CABIT, 2005

    We find that many managers believe: that information security is less a competitive advantage than a qualifier for doing business; that firms’ internal networks are not at additional risk as a result of using the information infrastructure to integrate their supply chains; and that their supply chains are robust to internet outages of up to a week in duration. We discuss their security perceptions and actions in the context of a cost model.

    In PDF Format (20K)

    Topics: Extended Enterprise, Information Security, Operations, Process


  • Inter-temporal Economics of Scope, Organizational Modularity and the Dynamics of Diversification

    Constance E. Helfat
    Strategic Management Journal, Volume 25, 2004

    The question of whether corporations add value beyond that created by individual businesses has engendered much debate in recent years. Some of this debate has focused on the pros and cons of related vs. unrelated diversification. A standard explanation of the benefits of related diversification has to do with the ability to obtain intra-temporal economies of scope from contemporaneous sharing of resources by related businesses within the firm. In contrast, this paper deals with inter-temporal economies of scope that firms achieve by redeploying resources and capabilities between related businesses over time, as firms exit some markets while entering others. The transfer of resources due to market exit distinguishes our treatment of inter-temporal economies of scope from standard intra-temporal economies of scope. In addition, these intertemporal economies can benefit from a decentralized and modular organizational structure. This ability to obtain inter-temporal economies of scope via organizational modularity and recombination suggests that corporations do not necessarily need a high degree of coordination between business units in order to benefit from a strategy of related diversification.

    Paper in PDF Format (183J)

    Topics: Data, Process, Product Development


  • The Gamble of Open Organizing

    Quintus Jett


    CDS Working Paper Series 2004-1

    Recognized today as a viable and highly effective form of developing software products, "open source” refers to the volunteer efforts of a vast, open community of individuals who are contributing, without formal administration, to a demanding public-interest project. We examine the grassroots campaign of presidential candidate Howard Dean to evaluate how open-source ideas can be transferred into an arena outside the software development context. We explain how “open source” organizing in the Dean campaign is inherently a gamble as we look at how and why it works, its payoff, and its internal risks.

    Overview in PDF Format (152K)

    Topics: Open Source, Organization


  • TeCFlow - A Temporal Communication Flow Visualizer for Social Network Analysis

    Peter A. Gloor, MIT Center for Coordination Science, Yan Zhoa
    ACM CSCW Conference, 2004

    This paper introduces an approach for organizational redesign and optimization of communication flows basedon temporal analysis of communication patterns in groups of people. Our Temporal Communication Flow Visualizer automatically generates interactive movies of communication flows among individuals by mining email log files and other communication archives. Combining those movies with measures of social network analysis such as the change over time in group between centrality (GBC) and group density leads to deep insights into organizational dynamics. In addition we have defined a contribution index, which measures the activity of an individual as a sender and receiver of messages relative to a team. Based on these findings we can make predictions on the productivity of teams and suggest interventions for improved performance.  

    Paper in PDF Format (99K)

    Topics: Change, Communications, Information Technology, Organization, Performance, Social Media


  • Visualization of Communication Patterns in Collaborative Innovation Networks

    Scott Dynes, Yan Zhoa, Peter Gloor, Rob Laubacher
    CDS Working Paper Series 2003-1

    Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs) are groups of self-motivated individuals from various parts of an organization or from multiple organizations, empowered by the Internet, who work together on a new idea, driven by a common vision. In this paper we report first results of a project that examines innovation networks by analyzing the e-mail archives of some W3C (WWW consortium) working groups. These groups exhibit ideal characteristics for our purpose, as they form truly global networks working together over the Internet to develop next generation technologies. We first describe the software tools we developed to visualize the temporal communication flow, which represent communication patterns as directed acyclic graphs. We then show initial results, which revealed significant variations between the communication patterns and network structures of the different groups. We were also able to identify distinctive communication patterns among group leaders, both those who were officially appointed and other who were assuming unofficial coordinating roles.

    Paper in PDF Format (343K)

    Topics: Collaboration, Communications, Innovation, Knowledge Management, Social Media


  • Static and Dynamic Pricing of Excess Capacity in a Make-to-Order Environment

    David Pyke, Praveen K. Kopalle, Joseph M. Hall
    CDS Working Paper Series 2003-2

    The interactions between pricing and production/supply chain performance are not well understood. Can a firm benefit from knowing the status of the supply chain or production facility when making pricing decisions? How much can be gained if pricing decisions explicitly and optimally account for this status? This paper addresses these questions by examining a make-to-order manufacturer that serves two customer classes – core customers who pay a fixed negotiated price and are guaranteed job acceptance, and “fill-in” customers who make job submittal decisions based on the instantaneous price set by the firm for such orders. We examine four pricing policies that span a range of complexity and required knowledge about the status of the production system at the manufacturer, including the optimal policy of setting a different price for each possible state of the queue. We demonstrate properties of the optimal policy, and we illustrate numerically the financial gains a firm can achieve by following this policy vs. simpler pricing policies. The four policies we consider are (1) state-independent (static) pricing, (2) allowing fill-in orders only when the system is idle, (3) setting a uniform price up to a cut-off state, and (4) general state-dependent pricing. Although general state dependent pricing is optimal in this setting, we find that charging a uniform price up to a cut-off state performs quite well in many settings and presents an attractive trade-off between ease of implementation and profitability. Thus, a fairly simple heuristic policy may actually out-perform the optimal policy when costs of design and implementation are taken into account.

    Paper in PDF Format (190K)

    Topics: Knowledge Management, Manufacturing, Marketing, Process, Supply Chain


  • e-Business and Supply Chain Management

    Seungjin Whang

    M. Eric Johnson
    Product and Operations Management, 11 (4), 2002

    The web is having a significant impact on how firms interact with each other and their customers. Past stumbling blocks for supply chain integration such as high transaction costs between partners, poor information availability, and the challenges of managing complex interfaces between functional organizations are all dissolving on the web. In this paper, we examine how the web is changing supply chain management. We present a survey of emerging research on the impact of e-business on supply chain management including descriptive frameworks, analytical models, empirical analysis, and case studies. We classify the work into three major categories: e-Commerce, e-Procurement, and e-Collaboration.

    Paper in PDF Format (69K)

    Topics: Collaboration, Commerce, Internet / Connectivity, Supply Chain


  • Dynamic Pricing on the Internet

    P. K. Kannan, Praveen K. Kopalle
    International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 5 (3) , 2001

    The pricing of products and services sold over the Internet channel is becoming more dynamic. In part this is due to the increasing use of auction models in business and consumer markets to sell commodities, excess inventories, used merchandise, rare items collectibles, and other items. Marketers are resorting to dynamic prices even for goods and services sold at posted prices, spurred partly by the lower menu cost of changing prices on the Internet and partly as a response to consumer use of price-comparison bots. This paper explains the relevance of dynamic pricing in the digital economy by comparing the physical value chain with the virtual-information-based value chain. It explores the implications of certain aspects of dynamic pricing in consumer markets (e.g., dynamic pricing of posted prices, reverse auction pricing of goods and services as used by Priceline) from the perspective of consumer price expectations, the role of information and consumer learning, and their impact on consumer responses to prices across different product categories. Several propositions are developed, and issues for research are identified.   More ›

    Topics: Customer, Internet / Connectivity, Marketing, Strategy


  • Postponement Strategies for Channel Derivatives

    Emily Anderson

    M. Eric Johnson
    International Journal of Logistics Management, 11, 2000

    The value of postponing product differentiation until final distribution for manufacturers who market a family of product derivatives through multiple channels is examined. A model is developed of a supply chain that distributes many short-lived products through different channels. Using the model, we find the postponement is particularly valuable for managing short-life products. Postponement increases distribution service levels while reducing costs and order fulfillment risk. Postponement is particularly valuable when there are many derivative products and forecast error is high. Trade-off curves are presented, that allow managers to evaluate the benefits of investing in postponement strategies.

    Paper in PDF Format (89K)

    Topics: Manufacturing, Operations, Strategy


  • Product Sequencing, Knowledge, and e-Commerce

    Ruth S. Raubitschek, Constance E. Helfat
    The Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital and Organizational Knowledge, 2001

    The digital economy spans a wide range of businesses and services. This paper focuses on electronic commerce on the Internet, defined as purchases and sales of goods and services transacted over the Internet. Two primary forms of electronic commerce involve business-to-consumer and business-to-business transactions. In what follows, we use the product sequencing model to analyze well publicized examples of each of these forms of business. The Internet businesses on which we focus—retail sales and mass customization (business-to-consumer) and electronic buyer-supplier online marketplaces (business-to-business)—are still in the early stages of their development. Like all other aspects of electronic commerce and the digital economy more generally, it is difficult to predict the ultimate form that these businesses will take. We can, however, use the product sequencing model to track the evolution of these businesses, to understand the nature of the knowledge required for the current visions of these businesses, and to analyze how firms may be able to use this knowledge to create new products and services over time.

    Paper in PDF Format (20K)

    Topics: Commerce, Marketing, Services


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